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Saturday, October 10, 2020 | History

2 edition of Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States found in the catalog.

Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States

Chester Garfield Gilbert

Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States

by Chester Garfield Gilbert

  • 27 Want to read
  • 34 Currently reading

Published by Smithsonian institution in Washington .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Nitrogen,
  • Nitrification

  • Edition Notes

    Smithsonian institution publication 2421.

    Statementby Chester G. Gilbert.
    ContributionsSmithsonian Institution.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTP245.N8 G5 1916a
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 p. l., 12 p.
    Number of Pages12
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL6592971M
    LC Control Number16026628
    OCLC/WorldCa3986066

      Nitrogen oxide air pollution level from energy activities New Zealand by source Nitrogen Oxides emissions in the United Kingdom (UK) .   Health Effects Associated with Nitrogen Dioxide. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System Profile for Nitrogen Dioxide.. NO 2 acts mainly as an irritant affecting the mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract.; Extremely high-dose exposure (as in a building fire) to NO 2 may result in pulmonary edema and diffuse lung injury.; Continued exposure to high NO 2 levels can contribute.

      Dirty cars, dirty air. Cars, trucks, and buses powered by fossil fuels are major contributors to air pollution. In fact, transportation emits more than half of nitrogen oxides in our air, and is a major source of global warming emissions in the US. ;Studies have linked pollutants from vehicle exhaust to adverse impacts on nearly every organ system in the body.   Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) eutrophication in marine ecosystems is a global problem. Marine eutrophication has a negative impact on food security, ecosystem health and economy through disruptions in tourism, fisheries and health industries. Both N and P have known point and non-point sources. Control of point sources has been easier than non-point sources particularly agricultural sources.

    Description. Oxides of nitrogen are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most toxicologically significant compounds are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2).Other gases belonging to this group are nitrogen monoxide (or nitrous oxide, N 2 O), and nitrogen pentoxide (NO 5).. Nitrogen dioxide is produced for the manufacture of nitric acid. The United States is one of the few countries that systematically produces national statistics on water quality impairment by point and non-point sources. In its Report to Congress, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reported that 65% of assessed river miles in the United States were impacted by non-point sources.


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Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States by Chester Garfield Gilbert Download PDF EPUB FB2

In the Western United States, where agriculture is intensive, commercial fertilizers are the dominant source of nitrogen. Atmospheric deposition is the second most important source, particularly in those western watersheds devoted to forestry or in remote headwater areas.

Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States. Washington, Smithsonian institution, (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Chester G. Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management is the first volume to provide a holistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen from field, to ecosystem, to treatment of urban and rural drinking water supplies, while also including a historical overview, human health impacts and policy considerations.

It provides a worldwide perspective on nitrogen and Book Edition: 1. Dinitrogen, or atmospheric nitrogen, can also be found in the soil. In addition to dinitrogen, other inorganic and organic forms exist in the soil as well. Organic forms of nitrogen make up a very high percentage of the total nitrogen found in the soil.

However, plants are able to use only very specific inorganic forms of nitrogen. Additionally, airborne nitrogen compounds given off by industry and automobiles are deposited on the land in precipitation and dry particles. Other nonagricultural sources of nitrate include lawn fertilizers, septic systems, and domestic animals in residential areas.

Nitrogen compound detection. Nitrogen compounds [nitrites (NO 2 −) and nitrates (NO 3 −)] are widely used in fertilizer industry to obtain fertilizers and also by food industry to increase the shelf life of food products.

The excessive exploitation of such compounds can leave a long time mark on soil, aquatic sources, as well as human. More than 3 million tons of nitrogen are deposited in the United States each year from the atmosphere, derived either naturally from chemical reactions or from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline.

Nitrogen is commercially recovered from the air as ammonia, which is produced by combining nitrogen in the atmosphere with hydrogen from natural gas. Ammonia is converted to other nitrogen compounds, the most important of which are urea (NH 2 CONH 2), nitric acid (HNO 3), ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3), and ammonium sulfate [ (NH 4) 2 SO 4 ].

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, and Management Options and Policies provides a reference for anyone interested in Reactive N, from researchers and students, to environmental managers.

Although the main processes that affect the N cycle are well known, this book is focused on the causes and effects of disruption in the N cycle. The current regulation in the United States (AMS/USDA, ) requires that if raw animal manure is to be used as organic fertilizer, it must be composted unless it meets specific conditions for spontaneous composting, such as allowing at least days between raw manure application and harvesting of a commodity that has been in contact with.

Coal tar, which is a distillate obtained in the coking of coal (Section ), is a source of an amazing number of aromatic compounds. Some of these are listed in Tablewhich includes nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur compounds, as well as hydrocarbons. Urea (CH 4 N 2 O) is the most common source of nitrogen in fertilizers.

Ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, is also used as a nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers and, combined with fuel oil, as an explosive (ANFO).

Beginning in the midth century, emissions of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (N r) to the atmosphere accelerated rapidly due to increased fossil fuel combustion and intensive agricultural activities (1 –4).Once emitted to the atmosphere, N r compounds are deposited to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems through dry and wet processes.

Although nitrogen is an essential and often limiting. Nitrogen (N) is an important constituent of any form of life, including plant tissues and proteins. Reactive N availability in the environment together with other nutrients like iron, phosphorus, and silica control ecosystem productivity (Mills et al.

).Nitrogen availability is thus linked to the carbon cycle and in particular to carbon dioxide (CO 2) removal from the atmosphere by the. Nitrogen is ubiquitous in the is one of the most important plant nutrients and forms some of the most mobile compounds in the soil-crop system.

Nitrogen is continually cycled among plants, soil organisms, soil organic matter, water, and the atmosphere ().Nitrogen enters the soil from many different sources and leaves the root zone of the soil in many different ways.

Some 60% of coastal rivers and bays in the U.S. have been moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution. Both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contribute to the problem, although for most coastal systems N additions cause more damage.

Globally, human activity has increased the flux of N and P from land to the oceans by 2-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO is one of several nitrogen oxides.

NO 2 is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year for use primarily in the production of higher temperatures it is a reddish-brown gas.

Nitrogen dioxide is a paramagnetic, bent molecule with C 2v point group symmetry. Many chemical compounds that are important for industrial purposes contain nitrogen include ammonia, nitric acid, nitrates and en comes in several oxidation states; -3, -2, - 1 / 3, +1, +3, +4, and + of those oxidation states has its set of compounds.

Compounds in the -3 oxidation state are weak reducing include ammonia, ammonium, amide and nitrides. Organic Nitrogen Compounds and the Environment.

Since nitrogen comprises 78% of the earth’s atmosphere by volume, it is not surprising that it would be an important component in many diverse organic molecules. With an electronegativity ofnitrogen forms stable covalent bonds with carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. When oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, ground level ozone is formed, a primary ingredient in smog.

A U.S. EPA report gives road vehicles as the second largest source of VOCs in the U.S. at 26% and 19% are from non road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations. Yes.

Vascular plants can absorb nitrogen compounds such as nitrates from the soil on their plants can't do on their own is fix nitrogen from the air into nitrogen compounds.

Phenolic compounds exist in water bodies due to the discharge of polluted wastewater from industrial, agricultural and domestic activities into water bodies. They also occur as a result of natural phenomena. These compounds are known to be toxic and inflict both severe and long‐lasting effects on both humans and animals.

They act as carcinogens and cause damage to the red blood .Greens provide bodybuilding proteins for the microorganisms crunching through your organic matter. Nitrogen-rich materials are called greens because most of them are greenish in color. The following are good sources of nitrogen for your compost pile: Kitchen scraps: Leftovers from the kitchen are excellent additions to the compost pile.

You do the environment a big [ ].